Courses

The Department offers the following degrees:
  • General Degree – Bachelor of Science  

          (Level 1G, 2G, and 3G)

  • Special Degree – Bachelor of Science (Special) Degree in Chemistry

          (Level 1G, 2G, 3G, 3M and 4M)

  • Applied Science Degree – Bachelor of Science Honours in Applied Science in Chemistry

          (Level 1G, 2G, 3G and 4X)

 

Level 1G

{slide=CHE101GC2: General chemistry and chemistry of main group elements|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives: To enable the students to gain basic knowledge in atomic and molecular structure and bonding.

Syllabus: Atomic structure : Sub atomic particles, cathode rays, positive rays, nuclear scattering experiments, Rutherford model and Bohr model for atom, introductory nuclear and radio chemistry, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, de Broglie’s equation, introduction to quantum theory, atomic orbitals and their shapes, principles relating electronic configuration of elements.
Bonding and properties of molecules : Ionic, covalent and coordinate bonding, vander Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, metallic bonding, bonding in molecules and their shapes, polyatomic molecules and their shapes, hybridisation, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, delocalisation, magnetic properties, polarisation, electro negativity, dipole moment, Fajans’ rules, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii and vander Waals radii.
Chemistry of main group elements : Ellingham diagram, extraction, purification and uses of metals, systematic chemistry of group I to group VII elements and noble gases.

Evaluation:


Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

 {/slides}

{slide=CHE102GC2 : Introductory Physical Chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives: To enable the students to gain basic knowledge in phase equilibria and thermodynamics.

Syllabus: Fundamentals in Physical Chemistry : Acid-base concept, pH, activity, solubility products and their applications in quantitative inorganic analysis, partition coefficients and their applications, properties of gases (Boltzmann distribution, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, molecular collisions  and liquification of gases), elementary kinetic theory of ideal gases, non-idealbehaviour, vander Waals equation, other equations of state, rate, order and molecularity of chemical reactions, factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions, Arrhenius equation.

Phase Equilibria : Compositions of solutions and Raoult’s law, phase rule, one component system, two component systems such as miscible liquids (pressure vs composition and temperature vs composition diagrams, lever rule, fractional distillation), partially miscible and immiscible liquids, solid-liquid systems, simple three component systems, construction of phase diagrams.Chemical Thermodynamics : Basic concepts, work, reversible and irreversible expansions, isothermal and adiabatic processes, state functions and exact differentials, zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, internal energy and heat capacities (Cp and Cv), Joule-Thomson effect, variation of specific heat with temperature, thermo chemistry, Kirchhoff’s law, second law of thermodynamics, entropy changes, free energy functions, Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, van’t Hoff equation, isochoric reaction, relationship between change in Gibbs free energy (DG) and equilibrium constant (K), variation of K with temperature, Maxwell relationships and their applications, open systems, Gibbs-Helmholtz and related equations, chemical potentials and their variation with temperature and pressure, chemical potentials of solvents in ideal solutions, Gibbs-Duhem equation, third law of thermodynamics.Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics : Ensemble, distributions and number of complexions, most probable distribution, expressions for total energy, entropy and free energy.

 
Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

 {/slides}

{slide=CHE103GC2: Stereochemistry and Reaction mechanisms|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:
To enable the students to gain better understanding in basic concepts in organic chemistry, stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms of organic compounds.

Syllabus:
Basic concepts in Organic Chemistry : Introduction, conjugation, aromaticity, delocalisation, inductive effect, mesomeric effect, hyper conjugation, steric effect, acids and bases, stability and reactivity of reaction intermediates such as carbanions, carbonium ions, carbenes and carbon free radicals.
Overview of hydrocarbons : Nomenclature (IUPAC and other systems), synthesis and reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, amines, diazonium salts, nitro and nitroso compounds.
Stereochemistry : Chirality and conformations of organic molecules, optical activity, enantiomeric excess, configurational isomers and their nomenclature (D-L, erythro-threo and R-S systems), Fischer and Newman projection formulae, sawhorse representations, geometrical isomers.
Reaction mechanisms : Kinetics and energetics (energy profiles, kinetic and thermodynamic control), mechanisms of substitution reactions (aliphatic-SN1, SN2 and SNi, aromatic-SE and SN), elimination reactions (E1, E2, ElcB, Ea, Eb and pyrolitic eliminations), addition to carbon-carbon multiple bonds (electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical) and factors affecting these reactions.

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

{/slides}

{slide=CHE105GC2: Practical Chemistry I|closed|noscroll}

(90 hours of practical work)

Objective:

To enable the students to

  •  Learn the background chemical principles involved in traditional and modern qualitative and quantitative analysis 
  •  Develop practical skills in the qualitative analysis of simple inorganic mixtures and organic compounds
  •  Develop practical skills in titrimetric analysis and recrystallisation
  •  Design and perform simple Physical Chemistry experiments

Syllabus:

Acid-base(pH), redox and precipitation titrations, qualitative analysis of simple inorganic anionic mixtures and simple inorganic cationic mixtures, recrystallisation of organic compounds, elemental analysis and functional group identification of organic compounds, simple Physical Chemistry experiments involving equilibrium, kinetics, heats of reaction and electrochemistry.

Evaluation:

In course assessments

Two End of Course practical examinations each of three hours duration

30%

70%

{/slides}

 

Level 2G

{slide=CHE201GC2 : Application of spectroscopic methods and Coordination chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

 To enable the students

  1. To use the spectroscopic methods for structure elucidation of organic compounds.
  2. To gain better understanding in basic concepts of coordination chemistry.

 

Syllabus:

Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy :Basic principles, instrumentation, different types of transitions, selection rules for conjugated olefins and carbonyl compounds, simple applications of UV spectroscopy.

Infrared spectroscopy : Basic principles, instrumentation, different types of vibrations, trends in characteristic functional group frequencies, interpretation of infrared spectra, applications of infrared spectroscopy.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy : Basic principles, instrumentation, chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling, interpretation of PMR spectra, simple applications of PMR spectroscopy, basic principles and interpretation of 13C-NMR spectra of simple compounds.

Mass spectrometry : Basic principles, instrumentation, different methods of fragmentation, interpretation of mass spectra, simple applications.

Coordination chemistry : Introduction, Warner theory, nomenclature and isomerism in coordination compounds, bonding in coordination compounds (valence bond, molecular orbital, crystal field and ligand field theories), electronic spectra of d1-d9 complex ions, Jahn-Teller distortion, preparation, properties and stability of coordination complexes, chemistry of complexones.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration         

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

 {/slides}

{slide=CHE202GC3 : Atomic and molecular structure and Basic principles of molecular spectroscopy|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to understand

  1. Quantum mechanical theories and their application in bonding.
  2. The basic principles of molecular spectroscopy.

 

Syllabus:

Atomic and molecular structure : Development of new quantum theory, Schrödinger wave equation and its applications (Schrödinger wave equations for particle moving in one-dimensional and three-dimensional boxes, solution of time-independent Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom), radial probability and angular probability functions and their applications, many electron systems, introduction to Hartree’s self–consistent field approximation method, electron penetration and orbital energies, calculation of effective nuclear charge.

Ionic bond and related energies, calculation of r+ and r from inter nuclear distance, polarization in ions, LCAO, valence bond and molecular orbital approaches in diatomic (homonuclear and heteronuclear) and polyatomic molecules, polarization in covalent compounds, vander Waals forces, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, introduction to crystal systems and diffraction methods.

Basic principles of molecular spectroscopy : Molecular properties, electromagnetic radiation, introduction to molecular spectroscopy, electronic, vibration (IR and Raman), rotational and vibration-rotation spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, fluorescence, phosphorescence.

 

Evaluation:

Three in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration  30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%
   
   

{/slides}

{slide=CHE203GC3 : Practical Chemistry II (Inorganic and Organic Chemistry)|closed|noscroll}

 

(30 hours of practical work)

 

Objectives:

  1. To develop practical skills in qualitative and quantitative analyses and synthesis of simple organic compounds.
  2. To provide training on interpretation of spectral data and structure elucidation of organic compounds.

 

Syllabus:

Qualitative analysis of inorganic mixtures containing phosphate ions, redox, complexometric and iodometric titrations, separation of organic compounds from mixtures, synthesis of simple organic compounds and determination of melting points, interpretation of UV, IR, NMR and mass spectra and elucidation of the structure of organic compounds.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessments 30%
End of course practical examination of six hours duration 70%
   
   

{/slides}

{slide=CHE221GE2 : Chemistry of electron deficient compounds, transition and inner transition elements|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To introduce electron deficient compounds.

To provide better understanding of structure and bonding in electron deficient compounds and organometallic compounds.

 

Syllabus:

Chemistry of electron deficient compounds : Introduction, structure, bonding and properties of electron deficient compounds as exemplified by the chemistry of boron, aluminium, germanium and beryllium.

Chemistry of transition and inner-transition elements : Introduction, occurrence, separation, different oxidation states and their stability, magnetic properties and spectra of transition and inner-transition elements, radio activity of inner-transition elements, chemistry of metal carbonyls, cyanides, isocyanides, thiocyanates, isothiocyanates; π-olefin and π-arene complexes of transition elements.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration  

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration 70%
   

 

 

{/slides}

{slide=CHE222GE2 : Chemistry of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyl and alicyclic compounds|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to understand

The synthesis and reaction mechanisms of various classes of organic compounds.

The conformational analysis of alicyclic rings.

 

Syllabus: 

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons : Synthesis and reactions of naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, biphenyl and indene.

Carbonyl compounds : Synthesis and reactions of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones, dicarbonyl compounds (diketones, ketoacids and ketoesters), α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, esters and amides, introduction to Hammett relationship.

Alicyclic compounds : Synthesis, reactions and properties of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7-membered alicyclic compounds, conformational analysis of alicyclic rings.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

{/slides}

 

Level 3G

{slide=CHE301GC2 : Analytical chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to understand the basic concepts of separation and analytical techniques.

 

Syllabus:

Error analysis: Introduction, numerical formulae for error, classification of errors, accuracy and precision, determination and improving accuracy, statistical methods in error analysis and sampling techniques.

Solvents: Classification, properties, acid-base strength, levelling action, solvolysis, effects on reactions.

Separation techniques: Basic principles and application of distillation, solvent extraction and chromatographic techniques.

Analytical techniques:

Titrimetry:

Classical methods: Introduction, titration curves, sensitivity and selectivity, acid-base titrations, complexometric titrations, chelation, redox titrations, precipitation titrations and back titrations.

Electrometric methods: Potentiometry, electrogravimetry, polarography, amperometry, coulometry, conductometry and colorimetry.

Optical methods: Flame photometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, molecular absorption spectroscopy, molecular emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

Radiochemical methods: Isotopic dilution analysis, activation analysis, kinetic analysis and enzymatic analysis.

Gravimetry: Introduction and steps involved in the analysis.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

30%

End of course written examination of two hours duration

70%

   
   

{/slides}

{slide=CHE302GC3 : Electrochemistry, Chemical kinetics and Surface chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 
Objectives:

To enable the students to gain understanding in

  1. the fundamental concepts of electrochemistry
  2. the kinetics of chemical processes
  3. the basic principles of surface chemistry

 

Syllabus:

Electrochemistry: Electrolyte, conductivity, mobility of ions in the electrolyte solution, conductometric titration, electrodes, electrochemical cells, electromagnetic force, thermodynamic aspects, special electrodes, potentiometric applications, introduction to electrical double layer, applications of electrochemistry (Latimer and Frost diagrams, electroplating, prevention of corrosion, bioelectrochemistry).

Chemical kinetics: Brief review of chemical kinetics, second and higher order reactions, determination of order and rate constant (differential method, half-life method, flooding), complex reactions (reversible, consecutive, simultaneous, chain and photochemical reactions), collision theory, transition state theory, kinetics of catalysis.

Surface chemistry: Liquid/gas interface, solid/gas interface, adsorption isotherms, introduction to colloids.

 

Evaluation:

Three in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration 

30%

End of course written examination of three hours duration

70%

   

 

 

{/slides}

{slide=CHE303GC3 : Practical chemistry III (Physical, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry)|closed|noscroll}

(120 hours of practical work)

Objectives:

To develop practical skills in

  1. chemical kinetics and surface chemistry
  2. classical and instrumental analytical techniques
  3. multi-step organic syntheses.

Syllabus:

Estimation of random errors in calculated physical quantities, determination of order, rate constant and activation energy of reactions, determination of partition coefficient and adsorption coefficient, simple experiments using analytical techniques such as titration, conductometry, potentiometry, colorimetry, polarimetry, chromatography and gravimetry, elucidation of the formulae of simple inorganic double salts by qualitative analysis, multi-step syntheses of organic compounds.

 

Evaluation:

In-course assessments

30%

Two End of Course practical examination

70%

Paper I (Physical Chemistry) : Three hours duration  

Paper II (Inorganic & Organic Chemistry): Six hours duration

 

 

 

{/slides}

{slide=CHE321GE2 : Industrial chemistry and Chemistry of biomolecules|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enhance the students’ knowledge in the chemistry

  1. industrial processes and waste management
  2. biomolecules.

 

Syllabus:

Industrial chemistry: Processes involved in the industrial manufacture, waste contributing steps and pollution control of the following;cement, ceramic, glass, plastic, asbestos, paint, textile, paper, tea, rubber and sugar.

Biomolecules: Biosynthesis, primary metabolites, secondary metabolites.

Monosaccharides: Properties, classification, stereochemistry, synthesis and reactions.

Disaccharides: Synthesis, structure elucidation and reactions.

Polysaccharides: Synthesis and reactions.

Aminoacids: Properties, classification, stereochemistry, synthesis and reactions.

Peptides and Proteins: Peptide bond formation, introduction to Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis.

Enzymes: Properties, factors affecting the rate of enzyme-mediated reactions, inhibition of enzyme activity.

Lipids: Wax, fat, oil, soap, emulsion, emulsifier, phosphate esters, extraction and purification of lipids.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

End of course written examination of two hours duration

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE322GE2 : Rearrangement reactions and Heterocyclic chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to gain understanding in

  1. the basic principles and mechanistic similarities of various types of rearrangement reactions.
  2. the fundamentals of heterocyclic reactivity and synthesis.

 

Syllabus:

Rearrangement reactions :Nucleophilic rearrangements to carbon involving carbocation induced alkyl and hydride shifts (Wagner-Meerwein, pinacol, Tiffeneau-Demyanov, dienone-phenol and hydride shifts), carbanions (Favorskii and benzil-benzilic acid rearrangements) and carbenes (Wolff rearrangement), nucleophilic rearrangements to nitrogen (Beckmann, Curtius, Lossen, Schmidt and Hofmann rearrangements), nucleophilic rearrangements to oxygen (Baeyer-Villiger and hydroperoxide rearrangements), electrophilic rearrangements from nitrogen (Stevens, Sommelet-Hauser and Meisenheimer rearrangements), electrophilic rearrangement from oxygen (Wittig rearrangement), aromatic rearrangements (Fries, Fischer-Hepp, Orton, Bamberger and benzidine rearrangements) and pericyclic reactions (Frontier Molecular Orbital theory, electrocyclic reactions, cycloadditions and sigmatropic rearrangements).

Heterocyclic chemistry : Structures and physical properties of 5- and 6-membered and bicyclic heteroaromatic compounds, synthesis and reactions of pyrrole, thiophene, furan, pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole.

 

Evaluation:

Two in-course assessment tests each of half an hour duration

End of course written examination of two hours duration

30%

70%

 

{/slides}

 

Level 3M

{slide=CHE301MC3 : Advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To introduce modern advances in analytical and spectroscopic techniques.

 

Syllabus:

Advanced analytical techniques : Brief summary of analytical techniques and their uses (determination of pKa values of chelating ligands, study of stoichiometry and stability of various metal complexes at different pH values), use of coordination complexes in chelation therapy, principles of chelation therapy in medicine (metal transport, removal of metal overload).

Advanced spectroscopic techniques :

Optical Rotatory Dispersion : Introduction, optical rotatory dispersion curves and circular dichroism curves, axial haloketone rule, octant rule, applications.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy : Brief overview of principles, comparative study of classical and quantum mechanical models, fundamentals of magnetic resonance, instrumentation – NMR magnets, probes, field sweep- and frequency sweep–continuous wave NMR spectroscopy, pulsed radiofrequency-Fourier Transform NMR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectra, 13C-NMR spectra, high temperature and low temperature NMR spectra, advanced theories of NMR, multipulse methods in NMR, 2D NMR, dynamic NMR, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and their uses in inorganic chemistry.

Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy : Principles, nuclear hyperfine splitting, anisotropic effects, ESR spectra of transition metal ion complexes, uses of ESR spectroscopy in chemistry.

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance spectroscopy : Introduction and principles, energies of quadrupole transitions, effect of magnetic field, relationship between electric field gradient and molecular structure, NQR spectra of transition metal ion complexes, uses of NQR spectroscopy in chemistry.

Mössbauer spectroscopy : Principles, interpretation of isomer shifts, quadrupole interactions, magnetic interactions, Mössbauer spectra of transition metal ion complexes, uses of MB spectroscopy in chemistry.

Photo Electron Spectroscopy : Principles, introduction to UV-PES and X-PES, Koopman’s rule, photoelectron spectra of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, comparative study of molecular orbital energies obtained from PES and theoretical quantum mechanical calculations, applications and limitations of UV-PES and X-PES.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE302MC3 : Applications of group theory and Diffraction methods|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 
Objectives:

To enable the students to

  1. understand and apply group theory for the study of molecular vibration (IR and Raman spectroscopies) and bonding in molecules.
  2. gain knowledge in diffraction techniques for three dimensional structural elucidation.

 

Syllabus:

Applications of group theory : Symmetry elements and operations, point groups, stereographic projections, group multiplication tables, matrices, degenerate and non-degenerate representations, irreducible and reducible representations, application to chemical bonding, projection operators, application to molecular vibration (Infrared and Raman spectroscopies).

Diffraction Methods : Brief review of crystal systems and diffraction methods, space groups, reciprocal lattices and fourier transforms, determination of crystal structure, fourier synthesis, ionic crystals and cohesive energy.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE303MC3 : Pericyclic reactions and Photochemistry|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

 To introduce

  1. the pericyclic reactions and their mechanisms and stereochemical effects
  2. the principles and applications of photochemistry

 

Syllabus:

Pericyclic reactions : Introduction, classification (cycloaddition, electrocyclic, sigmatropic and group transfer reactions), theories, prediction of the mode of reaction and the stereochemistry of products under thermal and photochemical conditions by applying the theories.

Photochemistry : Photochemistry in nature, applied photochemistry, photochemical principles and kinetics, photochemical reactions such as photo oxidation (endoperoxide, hydroperoxide and dioxetane formations), reactions of saturated and a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, photo addition, photo reduction, photo isomerisation and photo rearrangement.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE304MC3 : Aromaticity and Conformational analysis|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to gain knowledge in

  1. the aromatic and non-aromatic characteristics of non-benzenoid compounds
  2. the essentials of conformational analysis and asymmetric synthesis
  3. the quantitative structure-reactivity relationships in organic chemistry

 

Syllabus: 

Aromaticity : Theories of aromaticity, criteria for aromaticity, homoaromaticity, chemistry of non-benzenoid aromatic (having 2p, 6p, 10p, 14p and 18p electrons) and non-aromatic (having 4p, 8p, 10p, 12p, 14p and 16p electrons) systems.

Conformational analysis : Effect of conformation on reactivity and stability of compounds, Curtin-Hammett principle, conformations of chiral aldehydes (Crams model, Felkin-Anh model), monocyclic, bicyclic (decalin) and polycyclic (perhydrophenanthrene and perhydroanthracene) compounds, effect of conformation on rearrangement reactions (Neighbouring Group Participation, classical and non-classical ions, etc.), stereoisomerism, stereospecific and stereoselective reactions, asymmetric syntheses using chiral auxiliaries, chiral reagents and chiral catalysts (Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, asymmetric hydroxylation, asymmetric hydrogenation etc.), geometrical isomerism, optical isomerism in achiral compounds (spiro compounds, biphenyls, etc.), correlation of configuration and specification of configuration.

Hammett equation : Brief review of Hammett sr relationship, limitations of and deviations from Hammett equation, s o scale, modified substituent constants (s and s +), diagnosis of reaction mechanisms, Yukawa-Tsuno equation, Taft equation, effect of solvents (Y and ET parameters).

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE305MC2 Advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory|closed|noscroll}

 (120 hours)

 

Objectives:

To enhance practical skills in

  1. Quantitative analysis using advanced titrimetric and gravimetric methods.
  2. Quantitative analysis of rare elements and synthesis of inorganic compounds.

Syllabus:

Advanced titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. Quantitative analysis of inorganic mixtures containing rare cations, synthesis of inorganic complexes.

 
Evaluation:

In course assessment:

  1. One practical examination of 4 or 5 hours duration                 20%
  2. One written examination of 1 hour duration                            10%

End of the course practical examination of 7 hours duration         70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE306MC2 Advanced physical chemistry laboratory|closed|noscroll}

(120 hours)


Objectives:

To enhance advanced practical skills in

  1. Phase equilibria, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, transport processes and structure determination 
  2. Classical and instrumental analytical techniques

 

Syllabus:

Construction of phase diagrams, determination of equilibrium constant by distribution method, determination of transport number of ions, determination of molecular weight of polymers, determination of order, rate constant, activation energy and effects of catalysts of reactions using different kinetic methods. Experiments using advanced analytical techniques such as titration, conductometry, potentiometry, coulometry, voltametry, colorimetry, polarimetry, refractometry and spectroscopy.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment:

  1. One practical Examination of 3 or 4 hours duration                 20%
  2. One written examination of 1 hour duration                            10%           

End of the course practical examination of 6 hours duration         70%

{/slides}

 

Level 4M

{slide=CHE401MC4: Advanced Coordination Chemistry, Magneto Chemistry, Organometallic Chemistry and Reaction Mechanism|closed|noscroll}

(60 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students to understand:

  1. Bonding and electronic spectra of coordination complexes.
  2. Mechanisms of inorganic reactions
  3. Magnetic properties of coordination complexes.

 

Syllabus:

Advanced coordination chemistry: Bonding in complexes: Theories in coordination chemistry, type and description of bonding, diagrammatic representations. Electronic spectra of complexes: Introduction, spin multiplicity, weak and strong field approaches, spectroscopic terms, microstates, Orgel diagrams for d1 to d9 complexes, type of transitions, selection rules and intensities, crystal field splitting energy, Recah parameters, spin-orbit coupling, Jahn-Teller effect, Angular Overlap Model (AOM) of d- orbitals, charge transfer spectra.

Magnetochemistry: Introduction, magnetic susceptibility, measurement of susceptibility, corrected magnetic susceptibility, paramagnetism, Curie’s law, Curie-Weiss law, trend of paramagnetic behaviour with energy separation, quenching of orbital contribution, spin-orbit coupling, temperature independent paramagnetism, applications of paramagnetic behaviour, diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism.

Organometallic Chemistry: Review of organometallic chemistry from CHE221GE2,  metal carbonyls, σ complexes, π-lefin complexes, π-arene complexes, organometallic compounds as catalysts.

Reaction Mechanism: association and dissociation reactions, substitution reactions, experimental investigation of mechanisms, effect of p bonding in substitution reaction, SN1lim, SN2lim and SN1CB mechanisms, acid and base hydrolysis of Co(III) complexes, factors affecting the rate of a reaction, reaction pathways in square planar complexes, factors affecting the reactivity of square planar complexes, isomerization reactions in coordination complexes, photochemical reactions.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE421ME3:  Bioinorganic chemistry, Nuclear and Radio-chemistry, Advanced chemistry of inner-transition elements, Clusters and Clathrates|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To gain better knowledge about:

  1. Functions of inorganic ions in biological systems,
  2. Lanthanides and actinides,
  3. Nuclear and radio chemistry.
  4. Inorganic cluster and clathrate compounds. 

 

Syllabus:

Bioinorganic chemistry

The biological roles of metal ions: reaction pathways of metal enzymes, metal storage, transport and biomineralizations. dioxygen management; storage and transport of metal ions. Electron transfer in metabolic processes, metal-sulphur proteins, metals in medicine.

Nuclear and Radio-chemistry: Introduction, elementary particles, radioactive series, radioactive decay law, radioactive equilibrium law, kinetic isotopic effect, Schilard-Chalmer effect, radiation sources and measurement of radiation, alpha-, beta- and gamma- radiation, half-life, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, neutron activation analysis.

Inner Transition Elements: Oxidation states and their stability. Comparative study of coordination number, stereochemistry, magnetism and electronic spectra of lanthanides and actinides, preparation and stability of actinide ions in aqueous solution, cyclopentadienyl, cyclooctatetraene and other organometallic compounds of inner transition elements.

Clusters and Clathrates

Clusters: Brief overview of boron clusters, metal-metal bonding and metal clusters; type of clusters, electron count, structure and isolobal analogies, Polyhedral skeleton electron pair theory, introduction to tensor surface harmonic theory.

Clathrates: Channel compounds of urea and thiourea, clathyrate compounds of water, cyclodextrins, Werner complexes, phenol & dianin’s compounds, the rare gas-quinol clathrates (Helium and Neon, Krypton and Xenon ).

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE402MC4: Quantum Chemistry, Statistical Thermodynamics, Advanced Surface Chemistry, Macromolecules and Aggregates|closed|noscroll}

(60 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students:

  1. To understand the phenomena that led to the development of Quantum Mechanics, to apply the principles of Quantum Mechanics to specific problems like rotation and vibration of molecules, one-electron atoms, many-electron atoms and polyatomic molecules;
  2. To understand the basic ideas behind connecting the microscopic and macroscopic properties, to appreciate the use of ensembles and to apply these ideas to specific systems to determine chemical properties;
  3. To understand the special nature and properties of surfaces, specific interactions between the surface and the environment, to derive mathematical relationships governing adsorption and surface catalysis;
  4. To understand the nature of the factors that contributes to the properties of Macromolecules, properties of biopolymers and to identify the forces responsible for self-assembly.

 

Syllabus:

Quantum Chemistry

Schrodinger equation, Operators, Harmonic oscillator, Angular momentum, Rotational motion, Hydrogen atom, Variation method, Perturbation theory, Electron spin, Many-electron atoms, Hartree-Fock method, Bonding in polyatomic molecules, Virial theorem, Hellmann-Feynman theorem, Ab initio treatments, Basis functions, Semi empirical treatments.

Statistical Thermodynamics

Statistical definition of entropy, Ensembles, Canonical partition function of a system of non-interacting particles, Canonical partition function of a pure gas, Boltzmann distribution law, Ideal diatomic and mono atomic gases, Polyatomic gases, Equilibrium constants, Entropy and the third law, Intermolecular forces, Fluids.

Advanced Surface Chemistry

Capillarity, Surface films, Growth and structure of solid surfaces, Methods of surface analysis, Solid-liquid, solid-gas interfaces, Adsorption, BET and related isotherms, Chemisorption and catalysis.

Macromolecules and Aggregates

Synthesis, characterization, structure and properties of macromolecules, Biopolymers, Self-assembly, Colloids, Micelles, Surface films.


Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE422ME3: Advanced topics in Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Electrochemistry|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the student:

  1. To apply thermodynamic relations to complex systems;
  2. To familiarise with the methods to study fast reactions, to draw the potential energy surfaces and to demonstrate an understanding of the various theories of reaction rates;
  3. To develop models for ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions, to apply laws of electrostatics to derive specific formulas, to develop mathematical relationships that describe the electrode/electrolyte interface and to derive equations for the rates of reactions that occur at the interface.

 

Syllabus:

Advanced Thermodynamics

Third law, Absolute entropies, Thermodynamics of chemical reactions, Chemical potential, Gibbs-Duhem equation, Phase equilibria, Equilibrium constants, Mixtures, Activities, Partial molar quantities, Non equilibrium thermodynamics.

Advanced Chemical Kinetics

Study of fast reaction rates, Relaxation methods, Chain reactions, Explosions, Oscillations, Collision theory, Diffusion controlled reactions, Activated complex theory, Potential energy surfaces, Unimolecular theory, Reactions in solution.

Advanced Electrochemistry

Ion-solvent interactions, Structural treatment, Debye-Huckel theory, Electrode/electrolyte interface, Electrocapillary equation, Structure of the electrified interface, Electrode kinetics, Mass-transfer and electron-transfer controlled reactions, Butler-Volmer equation, Nernstian behaviour, Electrochemical methods.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE403MC4: Retro synthesis, Advanced Heterocyclic Chemistry and Advanced Chemistry of Primary Metabolites|closed|noscroll}

(60 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students:

  1. Design organic syntheses for themselves.
  2. Enhance their knowledge in heterocyclic reactivity and synthesis.
  3. Gain knowledge in control and regulatory mechanisms of primary metabolites in biological processes.

 

Syllabus:

Retro synthesis : Basic principles, functional group inter-conversions, synthons and synthetic equivalents, C-X disconnections (one group and two groups), C-C disconnections (one group and two groups – 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,5- and 1,6-difunctionalised compounds), disconnections of cyclic compounds (3-, 5- and 6-membered rings) and aromatic heterocycles.

Advanced heterocyclic chemistry: Reactions and synthesis of heteroalicyclic compounds, benzothiophene, benzofuran, pyrones (a– and g-pyrones), benzopyrones (chromone, coumarin and isocoumarin), pyrylium ion, benzopyrylium ion, quinolizinium ion, diazines (pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine), 1,3-azoles (imidazole, thiazole and oxazole), 1,2-azoles (pyrazole, isothiazole and isoxazole), purines.

Advanced Chemistry of primary metabolites: Carbohydrates: Brief overview of monosaccharides, chemical and enzymatic disaccharide formations, polysaccharides, glycobiology. Proteins: Brief overview of amino acids and peptides, solution- and solid-phase approaches to peptide synthesis, determination of the covalent structures of peptides and proteins, protein purification, three-dimensional structures of proteins. Nucleic acids: Brief overview of nucleosides, nucleotides, RNA, DNA.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE423ME3: Chemistry of Secondary Metabolites and Therapeutic Agents|closed|noscroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

 

Objectives:

To enable the students:

To understand the chemistry of secondary metabolites and therapeutic agents.

 

Syllabus:

Terpenoids: General methods of determining structure, classification, structure elucidation and synthesis of different groups of terpenoids (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and polyterpenoids).

Steroids: Nomenclature, stereochemistry, synthesis of sterols (cholesterol, ergosterol), stigmasterol, bile acids and steroid hormones.

Carotenoids: Characterisation of carotenoids, synthesis of carotenes (a-, b– and g-carotenes), lycopene, xanthophylls and carotenoid acids.

Alkaloids: Definition, general methods of determining structure, classification, structure elucidation and synthesis of different groups of alkaloids (phenylethylamine, pyrrolidine, pyridine and piperidine, pyrrolidine-pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, phenanthrene, aporphine and indole groups).

Flavonoids: Nomenclature, properties and synthesis of different groups of flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavones and isoflavones).

Biosynthesis: Introduction, biosynthetic pathways (polyketide, shikimic acid and mevalonic acid pathways). Biosynthesis of terpenoids, steroids, carotenoids, alkaloids and flavanoids.

Therapeutic agents: Mechanism of therapeutic action, haematological agents, sulphonamides, vitamins and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, penicillin, cephalosporin, tetracycline, ofloxan, bacitracin A).


Evaluation:

In course assessment

End of course written examination

30%

70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE404MC4: Advanced Practical Chemistry II (Organic chemistry)|closed|noscroll}

(240 hours of practical work)

 

Objectives:

To enhance practical skills in:

  1. Multi-step organic synthesis.
  2. Isolation of natural products and elucidation of their structures from spectral data.

 

Syllabus:

Multi-step synthesis of organic compounds (aliphatic, aromatic, alicyclic and heterocyclic compounds), extraction of natural products, interpretation of UV, IR, NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR) and mass spectra and elucidation of the structure of heterocycles and natural products.

 

Evaluation:

In course assessment:

  1. One Practical Examinations each of three hours duration              20%

  2. One Written Examinations each of one hour duration                    10%

 End of course examination:

 End of course practical examination of 7 hours duration                                                   70%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE405MC4: Research Project (Laboratory or Industry based)|closed|noscroll}

(20 weeks of research work)

 

Objectives:

To develop skills in analytical thinking, research methodology and writing research reports.

 

Syllabus:

An individual research project will be carried out under the supervision of a senior academic staff member (with co-supervision in the case of industry based project) and a report should be submitted based on the research project.

 

Evaluation:

Assessment of the research project report                                          100%

{/slides}

{slide=CHE406MC1 : Library-based seminar|closed|noscroll}

(1 hour presentation)

 

Objectives:

To develop presentation and communication skills.

 

Syllabus:

An individual seminar should be presented on a topic assigned by the department.

Evaluation:

Assessment of the presentation                                                          100%

{/slides}

 

Level 4X

{slide=CHE401XS2: Application of Analytical Methods |closed|noscroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

Demonstrate familiarity with separation techniques.

Discuss the fundamentals used in filtration techniques

Analyze chemical samples quantitatively using electrochemical and spectroscopic method

Syllabus:

Separation methods: Gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, affinity chromatography, Capillary electrophoresis and electro chromatography, etc.

Filtration techniques: Air filtration, Micropore filtration and Ultra Filtration.

Electrochemical methods: Charaterization of samples using electrochemical methods (Voltametry, Impedance spectroscopy, ChronoAmperometry, ChronoCoulometry, etc.), investigation of corrosion and inhibition of corrosion.

Spectroscopic methods: Advanced spectroscopic techniques such as inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and direct current plasma spectroscopy in chemical analysis

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments                      30%

End-of-course Examination                 70%

Recommended Readings:

Harold H. Trimm, “Analytical Chemistry: Methods and Applications”, Apple Academic Press Inc., First edition, 2011.

S. M. Khopkar, “Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry”, New Age International Publishers, Third Edition, 2014.

Francis Rouessac, and Annick Rouessac, “Chemical Analysis: Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques”, John Wiley & Sons, Second edition, 2013.

{/slides}

{slide=CHE402XS2: Industrial Organic Chemistry|closed|noscroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

Discuss the issues related to synthesis and degradation

Perceive environmental impact of   industrial polymers

Explain the processing and quality control of palmyrah products and essential oils.

Syllabus:

Palmyrah products:Chemical reactions involved in processing, quality control of raw materials in processing, quality control of palmyrah food products: fat profile analysis, vitamin analysis, anti-oxidant activity, proximate analysis, analysis for impurities, etc.

Industrial polymers:Classification, synthesis, properties and applications of polymers.

Essential oils:Essential oil industries in Sri Lanka, methods of extraction, analysis and quality standards, quality control of essential oils, industrial application of other organic materials such as, fats, phospholipids, waxes, etc.

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments                      30%

End-of-course Examination                 70%

Recommended Readings:

Moolchand Gupta, “Polymer Composite”, New Age International Publishers, First Edition, 2007.

D. G. Hundiwale, V. D. Athawale, U. R. Kapadi and V.V. Gite, “Experiments in Polymer Science”, New Age International Publishers, First Edition, 2008.

{/slides}

{slide=CHE403XS3: Industrial Waste Management and Cleaner Production|closed|noscroll}

(45 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

Characterize industrial wastes.

Apply waste minimization techniques.

Perceive the value addition to wastes.

Formulate cleaner production options in industries.

Syllabus:

Characterization of Industrial waste:Waste from different industrial processes, types of waste, toxic substances in industrial waste, analytical techniques for characterization.

Minimization and management of Industrial waste:Waste minimization and management methodologies, technical and economic advantages, waste minimization techniques, case studies on selected industries.

Value addition to industrial waste:Reduce, reuse, recycling and recovery of valuable substances from waste, use of industrial waste in other industries.

Cleaner production in industries: Resource depletion and global environmental issues, introduction to cleaner production, cleaner production process flow diagrams, quantification of resource flows, costing of resource flows, generation of cleaner production options based on waste causes, cleaner production techniques, screening and feasibility analysis of cleaner production options, industrial safety and different  ISO standards such as ISO 14001, ISO 9001.

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments                      30%

End-of-course Examination                 70%

Recommended Readings:

John P. Samuelson, “Industrial Waste: Environmental Impact, Disposal and Treatment”, Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2009.

John Pichtel , “Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial”, CRC Press, Second Edition, 2014.
Kenneth L. Mulholland, “Identification of Cleaner Production Improvement Opportunities”, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2006.

P. N. Cheremisinoff, “Waste minimization and cost reduction for the process industries”, Elsevier Science, 2013.

{/slides}

{slide=CHE404XS2: Industrial minerals, Nanomaterials and material characterizations|closed|noscroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

Recall the chemistry of industrial minerals.

List the concept of nanotechnology.

Discuss the basic principles in characterization techniques.

Syllabus:

Industrial minerals: Introduction, classification and application of minerals such as Gypsum, Kaolin, Mica, Silica, Talc, Zeolite.

Nanomaterials: Classification, synthesis, fabrication; application in water purification, catalysis, chemical sensors, energy conversion device, etc.

Characterization techniques: Use of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), Electrostatic Force Microscope (EFM), Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) in characterization of above materials. 

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments                      30%

End-of-course Examination                 70%

Recommended Readings:

Barbara H. Stuart, “Polymer Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2002.

C. Barry Carter and M. Grant Norton, “Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering”, Springer, Second Edition, 2013.

Guozhong Cao and Ying Wang, “Nanostructures and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications”, World Scientific Publishing Co. Ptc. Ltd., Second Edition, 2011.

Zhen Guo, and Li Tan, “Fundamentals and Applications of Nanomaterials”, Artech House, 2009.

{/slides}

{slide=CHE405XS2: Chemistry for Drug design and Chemotherapy|closed|noscroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

Formulate novel targets for drugs that are identified from natural sources.

Survey of the recently and widely used methods for the design of new drugs.

Discuss therapeutic functions of chemotherapy drugs

 Syllabus:

Drug discovery from natural sources: Selection of sources (plants, microorganism, and algae) and isolation, identification and synthesis of biologically active compounds, application in indigenous medicine.

Drug design and development:Rational, quantum mechanical and molecular orbital approaches. History of drug discovery, research and development strategies, computer aided designing (CAD) of drugs and pro-drug approach.

Chemotherapy:Therapeutic functions of antifungal, antibacterial, parasitic infectious, anthelmintic, anti HIV, cardiovascular and antihistamine drugs.

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments                           30%

End-of-course Examination                      70%

Recommended Readings:

Kar Ashutosh, “Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis”, New Age International Publishers, Third Edition, 2010.

Richard B.Silverman, The organic chemistry of drug design and drug action, Elsevier Academic press, 2004.

Kar Ashutosh, “Medicinal chemistry”, New Age International Publishers, Fifth Edition, 2010.

{/slides}

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